tell a friend!
ask a scientist
* * *
* * *
home > >
ask a scientist > >
reader questions & answers
SuperKids Ask a Scientist!
SuperKids' original Kids Editor, Sabrina, is now a research scientist with a PhD in both molecular and cancer biology. Dr. Sabrina has kindly offered to answer questions from our readers about anything biology related, from cancer to COVID-19 to what a research scientist does. While this offering is primarily intended to benefit K-12 and college students, we also welcome questions from the public.
So have a question about a topic in biology? Fill out the form below with your question, click on the send button, then check back to see answers!
Questions from our readers:
How do you make a vaccine? from Aditi, grade 10-12 teacher
Great question. We have previously talked about how to decide what type of vaccine to make courtesy of a question from Nikita, a middle school student (see our answers further down the page), so we will use this opportunity to talk about vaccine manufacturing.
Traditional vaccines use a process like this:
Should you desire a more detailed overview, check out this publication by Gomez and Robinson which can be found here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152262/pdf/main.pdf
Two of the most notable COVID-19 vaccines, the mRNA based technologies from Moderna and Pfizer, use a slightly different approach. Their generation does not require bacteria - instead a small portion of the COVID virus (commonly known as the "spike" protein, which is the highly identifiable "jacket" the virus wears when it enters a system) is chemically synthesized and then subject to the formulation stage. As it is not cultured in a live host (eggs, etc), it does not need to harvested, purified, or inactivated. When injected, our bodies read the spike protein blueprint (RNA), create more of it, and then our immune system recognizes it as foreign and attacks. Later, if we are exposed to the whole virus, our immune system recognizes the spike protein and is primed to defeat it.
When will COVID-19 end? from Prisha, K-3 student, Melbourne, Australia
Good question (and welcome to our Australian readers!)
When COVID-19 ends depends on how quickly we can get people vaccinated. Viruses need somewhere to live (a host, like a human), and by getting a COVID vaccine, you ensure your body is not a safe place for that virus (your immune system will recognize it as dangerous and kill it before it can replicate itself). For every person that gets vaccinated, that is one less home for the virus and eventually, there will be so few places for it to survive, it will only exist in remote locations in nature, rather than our neighborhoods and schools and homes. Generally, scientists believe at least 70% of a group of people need to be vaccinated to prevent the spread of a given disease; however, it is still unclear if 70% is high enough for COVID-19 or if even more people will need the vaccination. The best thing you can do right now to help the community reach that number is get vaccinated, wash your hands, and help eliminate places COVID-19 can exist.
When will the coronavirus go away? from Yashika, grade 4-6
We currently know of more than 30 unique coronaviruses, some of which can infect humans, while others infect mice, hedgehogs, or bats. There is no current way to completely remove these viruses from nature - it would be similar to asking if we could remove all rosebushes from the world. Somewhere a rose would continue to bloom, just as a coronavirus would continue to survive.
However, in terms of reducing the dangers of the coronavirus COVID-19 that we are experiencing, the quickest way for things to become safe/life to resume many of the activities we did before 2020 is to get vaccinated. Viruses need somewhere to live (a host, like a human), and by getting a COVID vaccine, you ensure your body is not a safe place for that virus (your immune system will recognize it as dangerous and kill it before it can replicate itself). For every person that gets vaccinated, that is one less home for the virus and eventually, there will be so few places for it to survive, it will only exist in remote locations in nature, rather than our neighborhoods and schools and stores.
Please tell me, what is cancer? from Nina, grade 7-9, London, England
What a good question!
Cancer, in it's simplest definition, is uncontrolled growth. Cancer occurs when cells grow beyond their expected locations and are not stopped by the protections the body has in place to monitor and control normal cell activity. Example: normal cells will grow until every cell is touching a neighbor cell (such as in a petri dish), and then once there is no more free space, cells will send a signal saying "stop growing, there's no more room for any of us". In cancer, that "stop" signal is lost and cells will keep growing, regardless of how many neighbors they have or how little empty space exists in the dish; they can even start growing up and piling on top of each other.
How did cancer start? from Adrian, a grade 4-6 student from Waynesburg
How cancer starts:
Cancer can start in a number of ways, but it is mainly considered a disease of old age. The cells in your body are constantly making more of themselves (to replace old or damaged ones). The longer you live, the more copies your cells have to make of themselves, the more chance there is for something to go wrong (like making a typo in an email). Copying errors can be random, or caused by the environment (things like tobacco smoke, pollution, radiation, and ultraviolet rays), or genetic.
Some of these typos cause cells to do things like grow forever (even when the body says it doesn't need any more of those cells), create it's own food sources (why wait to get nutrients the cells have to share with others when they make their own), or encourage cells to move to places they shouldn't (like when a lung cell goes rogue and decides to move to the brain).
When is the first time cancer was ever observed in human history?
The first documented case of cancer in history goes all the way back to 1500BC in Egypt - written on papyrus were notes about tumors found in breast tissue.
Is the covid vaccine really safe? from Alejandro, 4th-6th grade teacher.
Yes, the two vaccines currently approved for use in the US are safe. Despite the fast time from design to delivery to patients, this was a massive undertaking done at the highest standards of vaccine development.
How do you determine the efficiency of a vaccine? from an AP class in Wellesley, MA.
There's a formula for calculating vaccine effectiveness (VE):
VE = (Risk for unvaccinated group - Risk for vaccinated group)/(Risk for unvaccinated group).
Example: if we have 170 trial patients infected with COVID, 162 who received a placebo and 8 who received a vaccine, the calculation would be (162-8)/162 = 95% effective.
This number indicates that in the trial, there was a 95% reduction in confirmed symptomatic COVID cases among the vaccinated group, from the number that would have been expected if they had not been vaccinated.
Are the thousands of people in the COVID vaccine trials just walking around trying to get COVID? from an AP class in Wellesley, MA
In a sense. These people are still observing their local COVID rules (wearing masks, maintaining 6 feet from others, washing hands), but they are not just sitting at home in quarantine. They also are not actively going out like they would have, pre-COVID.
What controls are included in the study? from an AP class in Wellesley, MA
Every trial phase has control and treatment arms, where the control patients are receiving a placebo. That means these control patients are receiving an injection of saline. Interestingly, this is a triple blinded study. That means the subjects don't know if they're getting the vaccine or the placebo, the doctor administering it doesn't know, and the scientists looking at the results don't know. The only people who get to see the true full data are the people on the data monitoring committee to prevent any potential bias or data manipulation.
Will there be a cure for coronavirus any time soon? from Riles, a 4th-6th grade student in Newcastle
A cure? Not exactly.
A treatment/preventative measure? Absolutely.
A cure is defined as something that ends a condition. Example: tweezers are a cure for a splinter. Once the tweezers have been used, the splinter is removed and gone forever.
A treatment is something that helps manage the symptoms of a disease, but doesn't necessarily remove the disease completely. Example: an inhaler is a treatment for asthma. People can take the inhaler any time they feel the symptoms of asthma coming, but taking the medication won't prevent their asthma from coming back again. Lots of potential treatments for COVID-19 are being studied and/or developed, and a few have been approved for limited use, like dexamethazone, a steroid.
A preventative measure is something that people take before they get sick to protect them from getting sick. Example: the new COVID vaccines recently announced by Pfizer and Moderna. People will receive the vaccine, their bodies will build up defenses in their immune system, and then if the person comes into contact with COVID, their body will fight it off before it can take hold and do any damage.
Whats the difference between a vaccine and a theraputic? from a 7th-9th grade student in Miami, FL
A therapeutic is any treatment for a disease or symptom. It can be treatments like a pill, a steroid, an injection, a small molecule, or an antibody.
A vaccine is a preventative measure, designed to protect a person against becoming sick. Examples include vaccines for smallpox, polio, and the flu.
[Not to confuse the issue, but there is a 3rd category, called therapeutic vaccines. These are designed for use after someone is already infected, and aim to stimulate the individual's immune system to more effectively attack the infection. Examples include the rabies vaccine, and some vaccines for certain cancers.]
Are there a lot of scientific letters in science? from Tanvir, a grade 7-9 teacher, in Toronto, Canada
This feels like a question that needs one more sentence of context. Regardless - we've tried to answer it anyway! (If this was your question and you'd like to elaborate in a few more words should our answers not be fulfilling, let us know!)
Letters as symbols, notations, and shorthand:
Letters as a form of correspondance:
For example, Nature Letters can be found here: https://www-nature-com.eu1.proxy.openathens.net/nature/articles?type=letter
Scientifically, what can I do to enjoy my school year? Are there tips and tricks I can do to increase my physical enjoyment, happiness, and whatever else? from Julian SW, a high school student
As Elle Woods so effortlessly pointed out in Legally Blonde, "Exercise gives you endorphins. Endorphins make you happy." The thing is - she's not wrong. Exercise has been scientifically shown to decrease stress, anxiety, and depression while also increasing happiness, learning ability, and even your ability to sleep. Looking forward to your school year, putting an emphasis on physical activities may be a way to balance not only your physical health but also your mental health.
COVID-19 has certainly put a damper on many forms of exercise, leaving a lot of us trying to find new ways to still get that endorphin boost. If going for walks around your neighborhood or riding your bike aren't feasible or aren't sufficiently fun or exciting enough, now is the time to branch out. If available, try finding some new classes online like through the YMCA or your local gym. Unlike being in a class at the gym, no one can see how inflexible you are or how bad you are at counting music when working out online - so no excuses!
Digital workouts not your thing?
The home is ripe with options for making up your own styles of workouts.
From a mental health perspective, remember that you definitely are not the only one going through things right now. If it's in your bandwidth, set time aside each week to have a phone call or a Google hangout or a gaming session with your friends. Talk about anything not related to COVID-19 - who found the best new waffle recipe, who's reading the worst book, who's wearing the best sock combination, something positive and pleasant to debate. If you're not mentally up for talking to anyone after a day/week of classes, that is okay too. The important thing is to try to stay engaged with something - even if it's just classes.
If you need more ideas, Harvard has a really nice collection of videos and blogs about staying healthy in the time of COVID-19 that could also be a good starting point for some of your own research: Coping with Coronavirus
If you come up with any of your own great solutions that you want to share, feel free to write back in to Ask A Scientist and we'll share your discoveries with our other readers!
When will COVID19 disappear and when will it approximately end? from Ola, a middle school student
What a great question (and one lots of scientists are trying to answer right now)!
The short answer? We're not sure.
The long answer? There are a lot of things we need to think about to try to answer both of these questions.
What sources of data and analysis do you think are most helpful for students interested in being informed about COVID_19? from Mike, in Santa Clara, CA, USA
Great question! Some of the datasets I watch include the following:
Why is this virus (COVID-19) called Novel? from Samantha, a 7th-9th grade student
Simply put, "novel" means "new".
Scientifically speaking, any time a virus (or bacteria or disease) is discovered that hasn't been previously identified, it is classified as "novel". Though humans have been exposed to coronaviruses before, and even SARS-based coronaviruses, this is the first time we have seen/experienced/contracted SARS-CoV2. Hence, it is novel!
How do you make a vaccine for any disease? from Nikita, a middle school student
Short answer - we create something harmless that the human body will mistakenly recognize as the disease virus, and then the body builds up an army of antibodies that can later attack the real virus if it enters the body.
Details.... There are many things scientists have to think about when making a vaccine.
Questions or comments regarding this site? email@example.com